Write a paper on the Scientific Revolution to the political ideologies and cultural changes of the nineteenth century.For this exam, which covers material from the Scientific Revolution to the political ideologies and cultural changes of the nineteenth century, you need to write a 2-3 page analytical essay worth 120 points that answers one of the following questions. (I do not care about the actual number of pages, but two to three pages should be sufficient.). The purpose of this essay is not to write a summary of the relevant textbook chapter(s), but to think about the questions and choose important information from the text to construct a logical, well-argued response to one of the prompts below. Remember that this essay needs to be analytical. What evidence is important? What are the alternative answers to the questions posed or the other possible interpretations of the key evidence? Why is your thesis preferable to the other reasonable arguments? You should also be sure to explain how and why things changed or occurred as they did. If you were writing about the French Revolution, for instance, you would explain why some began to challenge widely accepted traditions or practices, who they were, etc. What insights, events, fears or needs led them to do what they did when they did? These essays should have a brief introduction, a body and a conclusion. Make sure you have a strong thesis statement in your first paragraph and a clear topic sentence in subsequent paragraphs. If a sentence or paragraph does not in any way develop your answer to one of the questions below, it does not belong in the paper. Effectively using evidence from the primary sources will improve your grade. You need to use footnotes to identify any sources you use. It is very important that you proofread this essay carefully before submitting it. If you use sources that you do not acknowledge, you will fail this assignment. Please dont hesitate to ask if you have any questions. Essay Questions: 1.) The nineteenth century was a period whose politics were shaped in numerous ways by the French Revolution. First, briefly explain what nationalism, conservatism, liberalism and socialism were. Then, discuss which social classes were motivated by and helped define these ideologies between 1789 and 1871. (Which ideology did the nobility tend to support? Who were the nationalists? Where was nationalism especially pronounced and why? Etc.) Finally, using specific examples to support your argument, explain which ideology you believe was most important during each half of this century and why. (Answering this last question thoroughly is important.) 2.) The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment undermined the medieval understanding of the natural world and challenged traditional sources of authority. Where did challenges to the old way of thinking come from, and why did they come then? In other words, why did the Scientific Revolution occur when and where it did? What conditions or developments made that possible? In your opinion, what were the most important insights of the Enlightenment and what were its most destabilizing ideas. Whose rights were included in these discussions about social and political reforms, and whose rights were not? (How were questions related to religious, ethnic or gender identity, for instance, included or ignored.) Explain using examples/details from the text and readings. 3.) The French Revolution was one of the turning points in Western history. Why did the Revolution occur? What were its most important causes and events? What sorts of regimes were created between 1789 and 1799? Which aspects of the Revolution were preserved under Napoleon and which disappeared? What were the Revolution’s greatest consequences for Western Civilization, both positive and negative? Were they more negative or positive? Explain using examples/details from the text and readings. Short Answer Questions: For the remaining 20% of the exam, you need to answer all four short answer questions. You should use your books and the presentations to answer these questions. These answers should be a paragraph or two in length. Each response is worth points 1.) Briefly explain the causes and consequences of the Revolutions of 1848. Where did they occur? What changed as a result? 2.) When and how did Italy and Germany become unified states? In what ways were those processes and the states created similar and different? 3.) When and where did the Industrial Revolution begin? What conditions or factors made that possible? (Why did it occur there first?) Describe one important way the lives of workers changed as a result. 4.) What were Romanticism, Realism and Impressionism in the arts? What inspired contributors to each of these movements? How were they similar and different?Show more
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